MENU

TO THE NEXTGENERATION

In March 2018, GLORY will be celebrating its 100th anniversary. Based on a spirit, passed down since our founding, of continuously striving to
benefit people by creating products that have never been seen before,
we will
continue to contribute to the development of society by
creating the value needed in each coming era.

NEXT

 

GENERATIONSSTORY

Always creating something new Starting with the nation’s first coin counter, we have constantly developed new
products/services by challenging the status quo.
The strong passion passed down through the generations remains rooted in the
background.

BACK

NEXT

 

100YEARSHISTORY

Security, Throughout the World

The business started as a factory for repairing and manufacturing light-bulb devices. One hundred years later, it has grown into a global company with operations in more than 100 countries around the world.

1918-2018 GLORY PRODUCT HAS NOW EXPANDED TO THE WORLD AS WELL AS TO JAPAN

START

BACK

PRODUCT

COMPANY

SOCIETY

TOP

1918 Founded Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing Started the business as a repair factory for light bulb-manufacturing machines.

1923 Received Match Making Machine order Exported to India via the match making company Our first exported product

1923 Great Kanto Earthquake

1936 Developed Agricultural oil Engine 'Fukuju-go' First in-house product

1936 Developed Kokuei-type 18-inch Shaper (shaping machine)

1937 Received Triple High-Pressure Pump order

1929 Great Depression

1941 Received Steering Machine order

1943 Received 500 horse-power Reciprocating Engine order

1939 World War II

1947 Received Chalk Making Machine order

1948 Developed Semi Diesel Engines

1945 End of World War II

1944 Become an incorporated company Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd.

1949 5-yen Coin Issued

1950 Developed Coin Counter First in Japan Delivered to the Ministry of Finance Mint

1950 1000-yen Banknote  Issued

1951 500-yen Banknote  Issued

1953 Developed Commercial Coin Counter 'AC-1' First in Japan Used GLORY brand for the first time

1953 100-yen Banknote  Issued, 10-yen Coin Issued

1955 Developed Coin Wrapper 'A-1' (trial production)

1955 1-yen Coin, 50-yen Coin Issued

1957 Established Kokuei Shoji Co., Ltd.

1957 5000-yen Banknote  Issued, 100-yen Coin Issued

1958 Developed Chewing Gum Vending Machine 'CH-1' First in Japan Developed Cigarette Vending Machine 'TH-1' First in Japan

1958 10000-yen Banknote  Issued

1959 10-yen Coin Issued

1962 Developed Coin Wrapper 'WA' First in Japan
Developed Banknote Counter 'SMC-1' (co-product with Sanko Banknote Machine Ltd.) First in Japan
Developed Coin Changer 'EA' First in Japan

1963 1000-yen Banknote  Issued

1964 Developed Automatic Stamper 'GSA' First in Japan
Developed General-purpose Vending Machine 'AB' First in Japan

1965 Developed Coin Sorter 'SA'
Developed Coin-operated Locker with extendable time limits 'LA-5' First in Japan
Developed Coin Changer 'EF-3'
Developed Banknote Changer (trial production)

1964 Tokyo Olympics Held Tokaido Shinkansen Opened

1968 Acquired the Sanko Banknote Counting Machine Kamata factory

1967 100-yen Coin, 50-yen Coin Issued

1966 Developed Automatic Fixed Deposit Processing Machine 'FB' First in the industry
Developed Coin Counter 'CK-16' First export of in-house product

1969 5000-yen Banknote  Issued

1972 Developed Bank Teller Cash Dispenser 'Teller's Payer' for financial institutions

1970 Osaka World Exposition

1973 Developed Banknote Conveyor Unit 'PD-1'
Our first OEM product
Developed Bill-type Ball Renting Machine 'EP-1' First in Japan

1974 Developed Banknote Strapping Machine 'GBM-1' First in Japan

1976 Developed Multi-functional Banknote Changer'EN-3'
Developed Flat Coin Sorter 'SM-1' First flat coin sorter in the world

1979 Developed Cigarette Vending Machine with banknote identifier 'TU-14V' First in Japan

1981 Developed Banknote Sorter 'UA-30' First in Japan
Developed Certificate Manager 'FE-12' First in Japan

1971 Renamed as GLORY LTD.

1973 Oil Crisis

1982 Developed Vault Teller System 'PB-75'

1983 Developed Coin Recycler 'RC-10'
 Our first coin recycler
Developed Banknote Sorter 'US-10' First in Japan Installed light sensor

1982 Established GLORY (U.S.A.) INC. in the United States

1982 500-yen Coin Issued

1984 Developed Banknote Recycler 'RB-10'

1985 Developed Banknote recycler 'SYSTEM-8600' for financial institutions First in Japan

1986 Developed 'P-card' System-Magnetic paper prepaid card First in Japan
Developed Open Teller System 'ADDS' First in Japan

1987 Developed Premium Management System for 'pachinko' parlors

1983 Went public on the Second Section of the Osaka Securities Exchange

1987 Received Good Design Award for the first time Coin Counter 'SM-71'

1984 10000-yen, 5000-yen, 1000-yen Banknotes Issued

1988 Developed Coin Wrapper 'WS-1' Smallest in the world at that time

1989 3% Consumption Tax Started

1992 Developed Coin Recycler 'RT-1' First in Japan

1991 Established GLORY GmbH in Germany

1994 Established GLORY (PHILIPPINES), INC. in Philippines

1991 Economic Bubble Collapsed

1996 Developed Banknote Recycler 'RAD-1' First in Japan

1997 Developed Open Teller System 'WAVE-100'

1998 Developed Personal Identification Seal Verification System First in the industry

1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake

1999 Birth of 'Euro', Single European Currency

1999 Developed Banknote and Coin Recycler 'RB-300' First in the industry
Developed Automatic Handwritten Ballot Sorter 'GTS-200' First in the industry

2000 Changed listing to the First Section of the Osaka Securities Exchange, and went public on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange
Established information processing center (GCAN Center)

2000 2000-yen Banknot Issued, 500-yen Coin Issued

2001 Developed Contactless Smart Card Reader 'SIP-40'
Developed Gift-Certificate Processing Machine 'GDS-100' First in the industry

2003 Developed High-Precision Technology of Facial Recognition

2003 Established GLORY Denshi Kogyo (Suzhou)  Ltd. in China

2001 The September 11th terrorist attacks in the U.S.

2004 Developed Cash Management Machine for 'pachinko' parlors 'DSP-100' First in the industry

2006 Developed Key-less Locker 'LTH Series' usable for both coins and contactless smart cards First in the industry

2004 10000-yen, 5000-yen, 1000-yen Banknotes Issued

2009 Developed Compact Open Teller System 'WAVE C30' for financial institutions Smallest in the industry
Developed Cash Monitoring Cabinet 'BW-700' First in the industry

2010 Developed Ticket Vending Machine 'VT-T10M' with touch screen

2006 GLORY SHOJI CO., LTD. is merged to GLORY LTD.

2008 Bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers

2011 Developed Speech Privacy Protection System 'Voice Guard <QG-11>'

2014 Developed Portable Handy Banknote Reader 'QN-20' for the visually impaired
Developed Open Teller System 'WAVE Pro' Installed first functions in the industry

2015 Developed Banknote Coin and Gift-cirtificate Depositing Machine 'DS-N770' First in the industry

2012 Established Glory Global Solutions Ltd. in U.K., and acquires Talaris Topco Limited and other 32 subsidiaries.
Received Red Dot Design Award for the first time Compact Cash Recycling System 'CI-10' and Cash Recycling System 'CI-100' for overseas markets

2013 Received 'Special Award for Next Generation Industry' at the 5th Robot Award Manufacturing assembly line utilizing the humanoid robot 'NEXTAGE'

2015 First Japan-made coin counter was certified as 'Mechanical Engineering Heritage'

2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

2017 Developed Sales Proceeds Deposit Machine 'RCM-500'
Developed Open Teller System 'WAVE A50-Series'

2017 Entered into the robotic system integration business

2018 The 100th anniversary of its founding

2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes

Secure Technology,
For the World.
For the Next Generation.

Technology Advanced in Cash Handling
Machines Leaps From Japan to the World.

As a leading cash handling machine company, the cutting-edge technology developed by GLORY has been spreading
not only in Japan but also around the world.
GLORY will continue to create next generation value and contribute to the development of society based on our
spirit to "continue to develop the new products not existing but yet beneficial to the world."

TOP

Restorer of GLORY Dynasty The Jusaku Onoe Story Restorer of GLORY Dynasty The Jusaku Onoe Story

CLOSE

PROLOGUE

The Foundation of GLORY

Over a 100-year period, a small company in Himeji, starting as a small blacksmith shop with seven employees, has grown into a global company that delivers products and solutions to over 100 countries around the globe. Introduced here is the life of corporate rejuvenator Jusaku Onoe, who in spite of ensuing crises laid the foundation of GLORY as we know it today.

EPISODE 1

Early Life Facing Death

Early Life Facing Death Jusaku at age 15

Jusaku Onoe (hereinafter Jusaku) was born on November 28, 1903 as the third son of Sakubei Onoe, a wealthy man in Himeji, Hyogo prefecture, who was the founder of Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing (now GLORY LTD.). Physically weak by nature, it was worried whether he would make it to adulthood.

In 1923, as he desperately struggled with worsening pulmonary tuberculosis, the twenty-year-old, Jusaku underwent a physical examination for military conscription at home. The military surgeon watched him struggle to sit up with a nurse’s assistance, and with an expression of sympathy and resignation, the military surgeon simply said “unfit”. That evaluation was considered to be a virtual death sentence. When faced with life-threatening circumstances in their youth many fall into despair, but Jusaku held on for dear life. While praying to the gods and trying every remedy available, he came upon ‘Mental Healing through Meditation’ promoted by a doctor in Kyoto. Clinging to hope, he undertook instruction and began treatment. The treatment was simple. He just sat quietly and controlled his breathing. Curiously enough, this worked. Day by day his health was restored. Perhaps his intense passion for life precipitated his miraculous recovery.

Making a comeback to normal life, Jusaku made a vow.
“To compensate for having been unfit to serve my nation in the military, throughout my life I will dedicate my line of work to contributing to society.” He was determined.

EPISODE 2

Working at Kokuei Machinery
Manufacturing

Working at Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing Advertisement of Himeji Electric Bulb and the Miyuki Street in Himeji around 1929 (Collection of Hideyoshi Takahashi at Hyogo Prefectural History Museum)

At that time, his father Sakubei Onoe was one of the top executives in the Harima province of Hyogo, and Himeji Electric Bulbs (now USHIO INC.) was among the many companies he had established. As a fully-fledged member of society, Jusaku began working at Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing (hereinafter Kokuei) which Sakubei had established as a factory for repairing and manufacturing light-bulb devices.
For a period of time, Jusaku studied accounting at an affiliated finance company called "Himeji Factory", but he soon found that work to be the exact opposite of the joy and significance found in making things. That insight prompted him to leave the finance company soon afterward.
Jusaku returned to Kokuei just before Japan entered into a deep recession. Subcontracted and affiliated companies were faced with factory shutdowns, and the streets were filled with the unemployed. Although Kokuei was also hard pressed financially, it managed to tide itself over by manufacturing buckets and other similar products.
While enduring the severe depression, some good news arrived. Kokuei received a

repair order from the Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited. (hereinafter Takasago Mill) in Takasago. Kokuei’s distinguished technologies had gradually earned recognition for assembling rice threshers, match making machines, and motorcycles, as well as for repairing machinery at the Japan Celluloid Crtificial Co., Ltd. (now Daicel Corporation) Aboshi Plant and Harima Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Ltd. (now IHI Corporation Aioi Works) among others. This recognition finally bore fruit in the form of an order from an industrial conglomerate.
Before long, the repair orders produced an even greater result. The chief engineer at the Takasago Mill was impressed with the technology of Kokuei and decided to delegate all of the manufacturing facilities for a new factory equipped with the latest papermaking machines to Jusaku. The small-town factory would be in charge of constructing all the facilities of Takasago Mill. This was just a dream for Jusaku. The number of employees grew from 20 to 70, and they lived up to Takasago Mill’s expectations.

EPISODE 3

Repeated Challenges, Director’s Betrayal

Having just survived the depression, Jusaku was faced with yet another challenge. The director working closely with Jusaku in managing Kokuei suddenly submitted his resignation. He set up a similar machine repair and manufacturing company, and started taking orders from customers he had fostered during his Kokuei career, saying “The Kokuei management knows nothing about machines. Let us take care of your work.”
Jusaku rallied. Visiting customers from early morning until late at night, he kept saying “We’ll do our very best. I sincerely hope you will continue to do business with us.” Preventing customer loss caused by internal betrayal is far more difficult than acquiring new customers. Jusaku worked frantically. He studied machinery in a

correspondence course at night, and had in-depth talks with employees during the day. These efforts progressively started to improve the situation. Although the director who had resigned tried to lure workers away, not a single person responded. On the contrary, they encouraged Jusaku saying, “Don’t give up, young master!” Takasago Mill continued to give Jusaku work as before. The director’s betrayal ended with nothing but ripples in the water. Even so, it made Jusaku think.
Later on, Jusaku heard about the director’s dissatisfaction and wondered if perhaps it had been due to the company being family-run. This sentiment had a major impact on Jusaku’s management policy later on.

EPISODE 4

Dreaming In-house
Product
Development

Dreaming In-house Product Development Agricultural oil engine ”Fukuju-go” Builders in front of reciprocating engine No. 1

In 1936, Kokuei got out from under private management when it was incorporated into a general partnership company. Jusaku took this occasion to begin focusing on his long-desired in-house product development. One year later, just when the construction of Nittetsu Shoji Co., Ltd. (now Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation) Hirohata Works was fixed, Kokuei built the agricultural oil engine named as “Fukuju-go”. Although it did not sell remarkably well, this engine produced the first Kokuei patent, which boosted engineers’ confidence and was the real start of the company’s in-house product development.
With a substantial technical team in place, orders for military goods also began to increase. The next year after the Pacific War broke out, Kokuei was designated as

a supervisory factory for the Imperial Japanese Navy Technical Department. Due to the shortage of fuel oil, the Navy decided to build coal-powered ships. Kokuei was commissioned to manufacture the reciprocating engines. With an intense work schedule that extended even through weekends, the first engine was completed in 1943. Despite the fact that the engines continued to be built and delivered around the clock, the course of the war continually worsened. Himeji was eventually burned down in an air raid. Nearly everything, including the main factory at Nonen-cho, was destroyed. The factory being built at Shimoteno in Himeji was the only facility not damaged.

EPISODE 5

Postwar Rebuilding and Nightmare days

Postwar rebuilding began with a sinking sense of disappointment. It was most fortunate that no one at Kokuei had died in the air raids. Full-scale reconstruction began by organizing factory debris. Engineers dug out each part and tool buried in the ashes one by one. These were formed into things like ice candy makers and tobacco pipes, but they did not sell for long.
“This is not the time to worry about appearances. We should try anything and everything we can think of to rebuild the factory,” Jusaku urged everyone. A food preserving factory, fertilizer sales, dry cleaning services for the occupation army, and the like… They gritted their teeth through the continuous hard struggle in order to manufacture machines once again.
As if in answer to their feelings, the first shipbuilding boom occurred in the third year after the end of the war. Orders increased due to the reputation of reciprocating engines during the war. Anticipating future orders, large-scale facility investments were financed from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. “Now, we’ll be able to rebuild Kokuei.” That’s what Jusaku, not to mention the employees, most certainly believed.

However, the Dodge Line in 1949 drastically changed the situation. Monetary contraction policy was implemented to reduce inflation. Subsidies and reconstruction funding stopped. This happened when they were about to use financed facility investments to actually manufacture reciprocating engines. Engine orders were cancelled, and financing came to a halt. With its back against the wall, Kokuei was on the verge of bankruptcy.
To make matters worse, an affiliated company Nippon Chemical Koatsu, who was called "permanent lacquer workshop" went bankrupt. Concerns about deteriorating financial conditions spread like wildfire, and Kokuei was rumored to go bust. Jusaku sold the land at Nonen-cho to pay off debt, but there were no prospects in sight.
He was unable to sleep and every day was a nightmare. Aware that he was in a dangerous situation, two men, Keitaro Tatsuta, the president of Tatsuta Bouseki Co., Ltd., and Jiro Shimizu, the president of Nippon Felt Co., Ltd., offered a helping hand. They advocated for him with banks, urging them to resume financing for Kokuei. Support from friends was invaluable. Jusaku was given the courage to come back from the bottom.

EPISODE 6

Coin Counters Provide a Sense of Relief

Although Kokuei had hit rock bottom, Jusaku firmly believed the Kokuei technical team was still a crtical asset. Around the time the banks shored up his company, Jusaku resumed company-wide sales. It was then that Senji Onoe, who was in charge of sales, picked up some encouraging information from the Osaka Mint. “Japan will issue coins in the near future. Coin counters are available overseas, but not in Japan.” Although he had no idea what this venture might entail, Jusaku decided to pursue it. The prototype testing went brilliantly, and was approved by the Mint.
Jusaku predicted “It is not marketable yet, but financial institutions are sure to use it,” and he relied on this coin counter to fulfill his dream of in-house product development.
Jusaku’s insight turned out to be accurate. In 1952, 10 yen coins were issued, followed by 50 yen and 100 yen coins five years later, and the coins were widely circulated. Meanwhile, successive improvements to the Mint coin counters dramatically improved performance. This technology subsequently attracted the attention of Sumitomo Bank (now Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation).

Caption: 1st Domestic Coin Counter First Domestic Coin Counter

At that time, it was generally believed that bank tellers would not be handling the troublesome coins. Banknotes were indeed primarily used. Nevertheless, Sumitomo bank (hereinafter Sumitomo) was paying attention to coin circulation. Some financial institutions were using coin counters made in West Germany, but there was still no sign of any full-scale installation. Furthermore, the expensive 600,000 yen per unit cost made it unrealistic to equip all branches with the German-made machines.
Contrastingly, the Kokuei coin counter sold at 125,000 yen per unit. Sumitomo did not hesitate in ordering 100 units. This is when the Kokuei name came to be recognized in financial institutions across Japan. Sumitomo installed a coin counter at each branch and used it as a sales message.
Signs announced “Coins Accepted.”
Shop owners who had previously been reluctant to take their daily coin earnings to bank tellers rushed into Sumitomo. Seeing the Sumitomo success, Sanwa Bank (now Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ) also had them installed. The year was 1954.
An unknown small-town factory had transformed into a national corporation.

Coin Counters Provide a Sense of Relief Street Demonstration of Coin Counter at Sumitomo Bank
(Provided by Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation)

EPISODE 7

Vending Machine Endeavor

Vending Machine Endeavor

With confidence from the success of the coin counters, the technical team started to work on a new goal. Vending machines were becoming popular in Europe and the United States. Jusaku read new product catalogs borrowed from his friend, foresaw a vending machine boom in Japan, and gave the technical team some ‘homework’.
Haris Co., Ltd. (now Kracie Foods, Ltd.) subsequently commissioned Kokuei to develop a chewing gum vending machine. The technical team had been working on a cigarette vending machine, but immediately switched to the chewing gum machine, and completed the prototype in late 1957. A further improved machine was installed in the Osaka Takashimaya department store the following year.
The impact was beyond expectation. It was particularly popular among children. The vending machines Haris installed in department stores throughout the nation increased their sales dramatically. They were pioneers in the vending machine boom in Japan.

From then on, the demand for vending machines for things like cigarettes, gas tickets, towel sets, hair dryers, and sanitary goods grew each time the cost of labor rose. Some makers sold poor-quality machines, but Jusaku always insisted, “To make better products, more quickly, at lower costs is a given, but the sequence is important. The focus is on better products. Speed is the next important, followed by lower costs. It’s vital that you never confuse these priorities.” Jusaku ventured into in-house product development, and that was his philosophy. With this consistent line of thinking, products he successively developed included coin counters, coin wrappers, banknote counters, and banknote sorters. Most of these were the first to be made in the nation.

EPISODE 8

GLORY Expands From Himeji to the World

In 1971, the Kokuei company name was changed to GLORY LTD. The objectives were to gain momentum in the export businesses and to turn a family operation to a corporate structure worthy of the international era.
“I think corporate success comes from believing in its public nature and surrendering personal attachment to it.” This was the perspective of an entrepreneur who had nurtured his company for half a century. That year, Jusaku retired as president.

EPILOGUE

Jusaku’s spirit

Our corporate philosophy, “We will contribute to the development of a more secure society through a striving spirit and co-operative efforts”, represents Jusaku’s spirit, and our employees maintain this everlasting passion into the present.

Jusaku’s spirit

We have quoted the article of interview of the chief editor, Mr. Takamichi Nakamoto on the issue of "BanCul" No.2 (Winnter/1992),
publication of Himeji Cultual and International Exchange Foundation. (Partially edited)

The desire to become the first domestic coin counting machine manufacturer The desire to become the first domestic coin counting machine manufacturer

CLOSE

PROLOGUE

Dreaming of making in-house product - starting from
the striving spirit

Why did the Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing, an anonymous manufacturer, challenge the development of coin counting machines?
And what was the driving force behind it? Exploring the origin of GLORY that developed into a global company.

EPISODE 1

Subcontractor period; pursuing production of own products,
challenging the production of the coin counting machine

Subcontractor period; pursuing production of own products, challenging the production of the coin counting machine

Kokuei Machinery Manufacturing (hereinafter Kokuei), now GLORY, was founded in March 1918 when electric lamps were becoming popular in general households, and it began operations with just seven employees as a factory for repairing and manufacturing light-bulb devices. The real founder of Kokuei, Jusaku Onoe (hereinafter Jusaku), strongly believed that companies should produce their own products to survive adverse market situations. Based on this philosophy, Kokuei produced various machines such as diesel engines, machine tools, and an ice lolly making machine. None of them, however, were sold due to the obscurity of the company and no sales channels. There was a period after the war when Kokuei managed to survive by creating side businesses such as a laundry and a boiled food shop. 

Subcontractor period; pursuing production of own products, challenging the production of the coin counting machine

In those days, when all the employees of Kokuei, headed by Jusaku, were struggling to contact various companies to obtain orders, Senji Onoe (hereinafter Senji), the younger brother of Jusaku, heard interesting news in December 1949 from an old school friend, who was working for the Mint: "New coins will be issued soon in Japan, and we need a coin counting machine that is made in Japan, since the overseas coin counting machines are too expensive. Can you make the machine at your company?" said the friend of Senji. Since the coins were not yet popular in Japan, the request seemed very difficult as if catching the clouds.
Jusaku, however, upon hearing this news from Senji, instantly felt this was a very promising opportunity. As such, Jusaku submitted the estimate of the coin counting machine to the Mint based on the information he heard from people working at banks with who had knowledge about the machine.
Meanwhile, Senji went to the Mint almost every day to discuss the plan for producing the machine. Senji’s passion and dedication resulted in an official order from the Mint to produce the coin counting machine. 

EPISODE 2

The days of repeated trial and error
by four engineers

The days of repeated trial and error by four engineers

The following day, they began dismantling each component and preparing the drawings for the production of the new machine. The official production began after completion of the drawings. The coin receptor tray on top of the US machine was made by patting copper plate. Since Kokuei didn't have the technology to produce the receptor in the same way as the US machine, they struggled to produce it in a different manner using cast metal or a different design.

EPISODE 3

The first coin counting machine resulted in the name Kokuei
becoming widely known in the industry.

The first coin counting machine resulted in the name Kokuei becoming widely known in the industry.

The first coin counting machine was made in February 1950. The machine was confidentially brought to the Mint having completed a thorough inspection before delivery. The trial operation of the machine at the Mint showed good performance, and the machine was officially delivered. This machine became the first coin counting machine made in Japan, and sales to the Mint become the very first step for our company to establish the status as a cash handling machine manufacturer.

The first coin counting machine resulted in the name Kokuei becoming widely known in the industry.

EPILOGUE

"A striving spirit" - the key to success

'A striving spirit - the key to success

I always say that no matter how capable a person is, he or she cannot do a large job alone.
Large jobs can be performed particularly well when the power and efforts of everybody are combined. There are some people who prefer to do everything by themselves, boasting "I did this by myself." I don't think boasting of a personal performance leads to great success. We succeeded in producing the very first coin counting machine in Japan because of our "Striving spirit and co-operative efforts".

arrow